Friday, February 1, 2019

In Vitro and In Vivo Anthelmintic Activities of Aqueous Leaf Infusion of Azadirachta indica against Haemonchus contortus


Haemonchus contortus called abomasum parasite is one of the nematodes which may lead to anemia that causes the decline in ruminant production resulting in economic losses (Martins et al., 2017; Pathak & Tiwari, 2013; Gilleard, 2006). Anthelmintic treatment is applied to control this worldwide major pathological constraint. On the other hand, anthelmintic resistance of nematodes has become a major problem in many parts of the world (Ferreira et al., 2013; Costa et al., 2008; Gilleard, 2006). Because of this concern, there is a great effort to explore novel approaches for solving the problem of anthelminthic resistance by screening traditional medicinal and potential tropical plants with high tannin contents (Pathak et al., 2016; Hoste et al., 2015; Nawaz et al., 2014).

Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) popularly known as a tropical traditional medicine plant has been explored for its medicinal application. Neem leaf has been investigated to contain chemically and structurally complex active substances, i.e., nonisoprenoids include polyphenolics such as flavonoids and tannins (Adjorlolo et al., 2016; Costa et al., 2008; Subapriya & Nagini, 2005). Condensed tannin (CT) was tested for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus and it was shown that CT was effective as an anthelmintic both in goat and sheep (Hoste et al., 2016; Nawaz et al, 2014; Hamad et al., 2014; Costa et al., 2008). However, the data on the anthelminthic activities of neem leaf reported on Javanese Thin Tail sheep, the Indonesian local sheep, are limited. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of water-based leaf infusion supplementation of A. indica on in vitro egg hatches inhibitory effect and adult worm motility test. In addition, in vivo test was also conducted to measure the effect of A. indica infusion on the number of eggs per gram of feces as compared to albendazole in Javanese Thin Tail ewes.

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